There is no direct train service between Lisbon and Barcelona.
There is a daily overnight service between Lisbon and Madrid/Irun
There is a connection to Barcelona by changing trains at Salamanca, that avoids have to drag between stations in Madrid.
Details as follows:
Dept: Lisboa Oriente TRENHOTEL 21.18
Arr: SALAMANCA 04.53
Dept: SALAMANCA 06.00
Arr: Barcelona Sants 14.20
Timtetable can be found at Spanish Railways site - www.renfe.es